Environmental problems may be classified by the scale of the relevant externalities. Some externalities are primarily local, for example, those concerning the management of resources like forests, pastures and inland fisheries, or local air and water pollution. Others are mainly regional or national like river and air pollution that is carried over longer distances. Still others, like ozone depletion and climate change, are global. Institutions that can address issues at these different scales may be quite different in their genesis and structure. For example, community management that may work well for local commons under some circumstances is ineffective at larger scales, where state institutions are required.
This paper will examine the evolution and performance of institutions that address environmental issues in developing countries at various scales.
Author(s): Eswaran Somanathan