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The Backlash Effects of Media Liberalization: Evidence from Pakistan

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Over the past three decades, state control of media in Muslim countries has eroded rapidly, through the rise of multinational television networks such as Al Jazeera, the spread of radio services such as BBC World Service and Voice of America, and the growth of the Internet (Gentzkow and Shapiro, 2008). Where broadcast media had historically been carefully controlled by central authorities, new media sources have diversified public access to information on news, politics, entertainment, and culture (Rugh, 2004).

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