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Chapter 4: Case studies on Bangladesh and Mozambique

The Institutional Diagnostic Project case study on Bangladesh and Mozambique is an attempt to explain the paradox of sustainability of the former and the disappointed hopes of the growth of the latter.

Appraising institutional challenges in the early stages of development- Chapter 10: Conclusion

Two central lessons can be drawn from the foregoing analysis. First, many institutional failures are traceable to the way politics functions. Therefore, any diagnosis or understanding of the impediments to a country’s long-term development that overlooks the country’s political economy…

Chapter 9: Identifying institutional obstacles to structural transformation: state capacity and property rights

After having examined the role of politics (in last chapter) in spurring or slowing down structural transformation and development, we are now ready to probe the issue of state capacity. This will complete our discussion of the role of governance-related…

Chapter 8: Identifying institutional obstacles to structural transformation: the role of politics

In this chapter, the focus is on issues that involve politics. More specifically, we look at the role of political leadership and state autonomy in development. The institutions involved determine the quality of governance in a country, but they are…

Chapter 6: Taiwan’s development miracle

There are several reasons why development scholars should be interested in the case of Taiwan. As one author has written: ‘It once had a single dominant party following the Leninist model; it now has a competitive multiparty system. It was…

Chapter 5: South Korea in the early days of its takeoff

‘What would have been the conclusion of an institutional diagnostic of the development potential of South Korea conducted in the mid- or late-1970s, at a time when the country was still a low-income country, at roughly the same income level…

Chapter 3: Case studies on Benin and Tanzania

There are several reasons why Benin is an interesting country to study, and some of them have no doubt contributed to making it an aid darling for many donors. First, although it is made up of an extraordinarily varied mosaic…

Appraising institutional challenges in the early stages of development: Introduction to part 2

At the core of the institutional diagnostic project is the idea that we can gain more knowledge about the role of institutions by undertaking in-depth country case studies than by carrying out broad quantitative exercises based on a large sample…

Chapter 2: Methodological framework for an institutional diagnostic

The preceding chapter defined the objective of the institutional diagnostics of each particular country and made explicit the concepts and analytical principles that need to be mobilised in order to conduct such an exercise. By providing a short description of…

Chapter 1: Institutions and institutional change: concepts and theories

The ‘institutions matter’ slogan appears today as a fundamental truth about development. Widely shared by the development community, including international organisations, it goes with the idea that the benefits of both market operations and state interventions are significantly conditioned by…

Appraising institutional challenges in the early stages of development

If there is absolutely no doubt that institutions matter for development, and for development policies and strategies in the first place, the crucial issue is knowing how they matter. After all, impressive economic development achievements have been observed despite the…

EDI Private Sector Research: Showing How to Improve Management in Firms and Government February 2022 Christopher Woodruff

We place the research on the private sector supported by the Economic Development and Institutions (EDI) Programme into the context of the broader literature. The review illuminates the contribution of the EDI research in two areas that are at the…

Traditional Institutions and Policy Reforms: A Review of RA4 Projects

Baland and Guirkinger summarise the case studies research undertaken on the theme of family, gender and conflict. They conclude that several examples of traditional institutions, such as patriarchy or clan, caste or ethnic groups, are remarkably resilient. They argue that…

Formal and Informal Institutions in Development: Contexts, Resistance, and Leverage

This synthesis paper draws together the salient elements emerging from the RA4 case studies research, and from three thematic synthesis papers written by members of the RA4 Scientific Committee, Jean Marie Baland and Catherine Guirkinger, Dilip Mookherjee, and Christopher Woodruff….

Institutions and economic development: Taking stock and looking forward

This paper serves as a companion paper to the Economic Development and Institutions’ (EDI) White Paper “At the Intersection: A Review of Institutions in Economic Development” (Dal Bó and Finan, 2016). The White Paper reviewed nearly 200 publications from economics…

Research on State, Bureaucracy, and Judiciary: A Synthesis

The state, bureaucracy, and judiciary synthesis paper finds that the research conducted under this theme makes an important contribution to the literature discussing the issue that formal institutions cannot be created at will, and that they require a suitable cultural…

Teacher Rotation and Student Outcomes: Experimental Evidence from Uganda- Policy Brief

Ugandan policy mandates periodic re-assignment of teachers between schools. We study whether rewarding high-performing teachers with posting to a preferred school improves teacher attendance, effort, and student performance. We find no effect on student and teacher outcomes. Results suggest that…

MOZAMBIQUE INSTITUTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC: CHAPTER 9

MOZAMBIQUE INSTITUTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC Chapter 9: The saga and limits of public financial management: The Mozambican case Abstract: At independence in 1975, the Frelimo government took over public administration from the colonial system and started to transform it. The public financial…

MOZAMBIQUE INSTITUTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC: CHAPTER 4

MOZAMBIQUE INSTITUTIONAL DIAGNOSTIC Chapter 4. The relative neglect of agriculture in Mozambique Abstract: This paper explores agricultural performance of Mozambique, its institutional weaknesses, and the underlying factors that underpin an unsatisfactory performance during many decades. We point to the role…

Center for Effective Global Action (CEGA) Impact Report 2021

The EDI research programme has generated significant policy impacts, including changes to laws and national policies as a result of close engagement between researchers and government officials. This report by the Centre for Effective Global Action (CEGA) details the impact of our work throughout the globe.

Thematic Insight: Motivating and monitoring public service provision

The ability to recruit, elicit effort from, and retain civil servants is a central issue for any government. Poor performance of frontline civil servants (e.g., teachers, health workers, tax collectors) suggests that governments need to find and deploy more effective…

Thematic Insight: Modernizing tax collection

Developing, maintaining, and using tax records to boost revenue. Tax revenue funds the provision of public goods, but poor countries struggle to raise taxes. In fact, as shown in the figure above, low income countries (LICs) raise only half as much tax…

Crime in the time of COVID-19: How Colombian gangs responded to the pandemic

Since the COVID-19 outbreak, scholars and journalists have spread anecdotes of gangs and criminal organizations coming to the aid of citizens, governing in place of the state. They report gang activities that range from enforcing lockdowns to providing goods and…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 1

An Institutional Diagnostic of Bangladesh: Introduction Chapter overview: Why an institutional diagnostic? Methodological approach to the Bangladesh institutional diagnostic and the organisation of this volume A brief overview of Bangladesh’s political history The difficult installation of democracy The era of…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 11

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 11: The Synthesis Chapter overview: Introduction Identifying institutional constraints in Bangladesh’s development A sketch of Bangladesh’s political history Successes and challenges of Bangladesh’s economic development Bangladesh’s institutional performance in global rankings Bangladesh’s institutional performance based on…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 9

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 9: Institutional challenges in land administration and management in Bangladesh Chapter Overview List of tables and figures Glossary Introduction Consequences of land scarcity and inefficient land management Overview of the land laws and policies in Bangladesh…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Foreword

The vital importance of institutions for economic development is widely acknowledged in both the theoretical and empirical literature. Yet the precise nature of the relationship between the two is unclear: do ‘good’ institutions produce development, or does development lead to…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 4

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 4: The country institutional survey – experts’ opinions on institutions in Bangladesh Chapter Overview List of tables and figures Introduction The CIS in Bangladesh The survey: design of the questionnaire Execution of the survey Critical institutional…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 8

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 8: Institutional challenges in public spending: the case of primary education Chapter overview: List of figures Introduction The importance of education (primary education) for development in Bangladesh The primary education sector in Bangladesh: basic performance Challenges…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 10

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 10: Political economy analysis of the role of the judiciary in land dispossession litigation in Bangladesh Chapter Overview Table of contents List of tables and figures List of abbreviations Glossary Introduction The effectiveness of the judiciary…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 7

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 7: Institutional dimensions of tax reforms in Bangladesh Chapter Overview List of tables and figures Development context The public resource mobilisation challenge Main objectives, methodology, and approach of the chapter Tax mobilisation issues in developing countries:…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 6

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 6: Political economy of private bank governance in Bangladesh Chapter Overview List of tables, figures, and boxes Introduction Review of literature on the banking sector of Bangladesh Banking sector in Bangladesh: Performance and challenges Structure of…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 5

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 5: Informal institutions, the RMG sector, and the present challenge of export diversification in Bangladesh Chapter Overview List of tables, figures, and boxes Introduction Review of the literature on export diversification Overview of the RMG and…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 3

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 3: A cross-country comparative analysis of institutional indicators: Where does Bangladesh stand? Chapter Overview List of tables and figures Introduction Constructing synthetic institutional indices Bangladesh’s position in the global ranking of synthetic institutional indices How does…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 2

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 2: Bangladesh’s Development: Achievements and Challenges Chapter Overview: List of tables and figures Introduction Sources of growth and possible limitations of the present development regime  Aggregate growth Structural transformation Remittances and foreign direct investment Infrastructure Bangladesh…

EDI Podcast: Joyce Sadka discusses labour law reform in Mexico

On 1 May 2019, Mexico passed a new labour law. This was seen by many as the most substantial labour law reform in Mexico in a century. In the lead up to the law reform, EDI-funded research led by Assistant…

Mozambique Institutional Diagnostic – an overview

The Mozambique Institutional Diagnostic (MID) study officially started in February 2019 under a contract with the Development Economics Research Group (DERG) of the University of Copenhagen, in coordination with activities supported by DERG and UNU-WIDER in Mozambique. The methodology for…

Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic – An overview

The Bangladesh Institutional Diagnostic was officially started in September 2018. It is led by Selim Raihan, the Executive Director of the South Asian Network for Economic Modelling (SANEM), together with François Bourguignon, Research Director of the Economic Development and Institutions…

Benin Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 1 (first draft)

Benin Institutional Diagnostic This publication is the first draft of an introductory chapter for the Benin Institutional Diagnostic. To see the final versions of all publications arising from this study, visit our Benin Institutional Diagnostic overview. Chapter 1: A first…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Synthesis

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 8: Synthesis This chapter provides a synthesis of information and arguments developed in the first seven chapters of the Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic. Chapter outline Part 1.  The basic institutional constraints on Tanzanian development The main challenges…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 7

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 7: Power Sector Chapter outline Introduction The Tanzanian power sector: structure and performance Institutional structure Power sector performance The Tanzanian power sector’s institutional development Early institutional infrastructure in the power sector – the colonial period From…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 6

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 6: Land Rights Chapter outline Overview A brief historical perspective on land tenure issues Legal land tenure in Tanzania according to the 1999 Land Act Rights of occupancy Land transformation by the state and the issue…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 5

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 5: Decentralization and development Chapter outline Introduction The theory of central–local government relationships The evolution of local government in Tanzania Local and central governance in Tanzania today: a complex and confusing legal framework Fiscal decentralisation: the…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 4

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 4: Civil Service Chapter outline Introduction The role and political context of the civil service in economic development The transitional phase, 1961–66 The socialist phase, 1967–85 The liberalisation phase, 1986 to date Constraints to effective civil…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 3

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 3: Politics and business Chapter outline Introduction Theoretical framework and methodology The early independence period: 1961–66 The situation at independence Origins of the position of Asians Development initiatives in early post-independence period Continued concern over social…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 2

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 2: Tanzanian institutional strengths and weaknesses Chapter outline Introduction The Country Institutional Survey (CIS): experts’ opinions on Tanzanian institutions The survey: design of the questionnaire Execution of the survey Most critical institutions for the development of Tanzania…

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic – Chapter 1

Tanzania Institutional Diagnostic Chapter 1: Reflections on the political and economic development of Tanzania Chapter outline A short account of the political history of Tanzania The colonial era The German colonisation The British mandate on Tanganyika Independence Forging a nation: the…

Benin Institutional Diagnostic Overview

This document provides an outline of the methodology and research process for the Benin Institutional Diagnostic.

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